Get Help Sign In
Icons Library_Sky_Circle_Products_60x60_CRISPR

How CRISPR works


CRISPR genome editing enables precise, intentional, and permanent changes in the DNA of living organisms and cells. This editing technology relies on Cas enzymes and guide RNAs (gRNAs) and allows for genetic changes to be made at a targeted site.

CRISPR editing research by scientists


CRISPR genome editing enables precise, intentional, and permanent changes in the DNA of living organisms and cells. This editing technology relies on Cas enzymes and guide RNAs (gRNAs) that are part of the bacterial immune systems found in nature. A gRNA binds the Cas enzyme and directs it to a genomic DNA target, where the Cas enzyme then cleaves the DNA. Mutations, gene knockouts, and knock-ins can be precisely placed at the targeted site.



CRISPR technology is cost-effective, rapid, and easy to use. The flexibility of this technology allows scientists to use it in a wide range of applications from research to industry, medicine to agriculture.





Scientists select an appropriate Cas enzyme and design a gRNA targeting a genomic site. After synthesis, gRNA is combined with the Cas enzyme, forming a ribonucleoprotein (RNP). The RNP is delivered to cells by various means such as electroporation, and genome editing takes place inside cells. For a quantitative assessment after editing, DNA from edited cells can be sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS).


Crispr handbook 85x85

The CRISPR basics handbook

Everything you need to know about CRISPR, from A to Z, from theory to practice, for beginners as well as advanced users.

Get started with CRISPR

Alt-R™ CRISPR-Cas9 System

Efficient CRISPR reagents based on the commonly used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 system for lipofection or electroporation experiments. Protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) = NGG.

Learn more

Alt-R™ CRISPR-Cas12a (Cpf1) System

For additional target sites or for targeting AT-rich regions, use the CRISPR-Cas12a system in electroporation experiments. Protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) = TTTV. The Alt-R Cas12a (Cpf1) Ultra also can recognize many TTTT PAM sites in addition to TTTV motifs, increasing target range for genome editing studies.

Learn more

Cas9 guide RNA design tool

Select from our predesigned gRNAs targeting human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, or nematode genes. For other species, use our proprietary algorithms to design custom gRNAs. For protospacer designs of your own or from publications, use our design checker tool to assess targeting potential before ordering gRNAs that are synthesized using Alt-R gRNA modifications.

Learn more

Cas9 HDR donor template and gRNA design

Provide basic information about your target site, then use the HDR tool to design and visualize your desired edit within the sequence. The HDR Design Tool will provide the recommended gRNA(s) and HDR donor template for your specifications.

Learn more

rhAmpSeq™ CRISPR Analysis System

An end-to-end solution to design, deploy, and analyze next generation sequencing data for on- and off-target interrogation after your CRISPR experiment.

Learn more

Alt-R™ Genome Editing Detection Kit

T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) mismatch cleavage assay for detection of on-target editing, known off-target events, and estimation of genome editing efficiency in cultured cells.

Learn more

*RUO—For research use only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Unless otherwise agreed to in writing, IDT does not intend for these products to be used in clinical applications and does not warrant their fitness or suitability for any clinical diagnostic use. Purchaser is solely responsible for all decisions regarding the use of these products and any associated regulatory or legal obligations.